Found by Redditor daniel65536, clarified by Redditor beachedwhale1945
Based on this information, these are the guns:
28 cm/52 (11″) SK C/28, used on Deutschland class pocket battleships.
28 cm/54.5 (11″) SK C/34 used on Scharnhorst class battleships/battlecruisers (the terms get muddled here) and planned for the P class heavy cruiser
30.5 cm/50 (12″) SK L/50 used on Helgoland, Kaiser, and König class battleships and Derfflinger class battlecruiser.
35 cm/45 (13.78″) SK L/45 planned for the never-completed Mackensen class battlecruisers
38 cm/45 (14.96″) SK L/45 used on the Bayern class battleship and intended for the Ersatz Yorck class battlecruisers. Note these are NOT the same shells used on Tirpitz-this list may be incomplete and other ships may be added, including H41.
40.6 cm/52 (16″) SK C/34 intended for the H39 class battleships.
Note any stats you see in those pages were the real life stats and not the game stats. Typically the range will be shorter and traverse speeds buffed where needed.